• Dr. Arvind Malik Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education, Kurukshetra University, Haryana, India
  • Balbir Singh Research Scholar, Department of Physical Education, Kurukshetra University, Haryana, India


Prenatal testosterone, androgen, digital finger ratio and sporting ability.


A longer relative fourth digit to second digit is indicative of increased intrauterine testosterone exposure prenatally and the converse is also true for oestrogen exposure. But there are very few studies which has evaluated the association between 2D:4D and the testosterone hormone in saliva of elite sportsmen. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that high levels of testosterone during prenatal life, testified by a low second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), as well as in adulthood affect the salivary testosterone in the elite players. Digital finger ratio 2d:4d and salivary testosterone hormone was measured in 91 elite sportsmen (Volleyball N-36, Basketball N- 30 & Football N- 25) of age 22.14 ±2.11 yrs. We found a significant difference in the digital finger ratio 2d:4d between the elite sportsmen and non sportsmen (Volleyball v/s NSM t value -3.89, P < 0.01, Basketball v/s NSM t value – 3.01, P < 0.01 & Football v/s NSM t value – 4.33, P < 0.01). Further significant difference (Volleyball v/s NSM t value -7.29, P < 0.01, Basketball v/s NSM t value – 4.10, P < 0.01 & Football v/s NSM t value – 8.57, P < 0.01) in the level of salivary testosterone hormone (pg/ml) between the elite sportsmen and non sportsmen was found. We suggest that low right-left 2D:4D is a predictive marker of testosterone receptiveness in men trained for sports and this association is programmed by the action of prenatal testosterone.


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How to Cite

Malik, D. A., & Singh, B. (2014). DIGITAL FINGER RATIO (2D:4D) AND SALIVARY TESTOSTERONE LEVEL IN ELITE SPORTSMEN AND NON-SPORTSMEN. International Journal of Behavioral Social and Movement Sciences, 3(1), 01–08. Retrieved from